Vegetatively vascular dystonia has a functional nature. VVD that occurs in adolescents and young people is often due to inconsistency of physical development and the degree of maturity of the nervous and endocrine apparatus. In other age groups, the following factors can contribute to the development of dystonia:
In some people, vegetative dystonia is observed from birth: they are poorly tolerated by heat or cold, when they are excited, they turn red or pale, they are then covered. In children, vegetative dystonia may be manifested by incontinence of urine at night. In adults (more commonly in women), the regulatory functions of the autonomic nervous system may sometimes occur in the form of attacks – vegetative crises. Vascular dystonia often occurs with nerve disorders, over-strain, after acute and chronic infectious diseases, poisoning, vitamin deficiency, and nervous breakdowns.
There can be constants or variables – so-called vegetative-vascular paroxysms. Constant symptoms occur more often at congenital instability of the nervous system. Such people badly tolerate weather changes; during physical work and emotional experiences, it is easy to pale, redden, feels an elevated palpitation, there is an increased sweating. Vegetative vascular paroxysms begin either with headaches or pain in the heart, heart palpitations, redness or blanche of the person. Blood pressure rises, pulse increases, body temperature rises, fever may begin. Sometimes there is an unreasonable fear. In other cases there is a general weakness, dizziness, darkening in the eyes, sweating, nausea, reduced blood pressure, pulse falls. Such attacks can last from a few minutes to 2 to 3 hours and in many cases go away without any treatment of vegetative vascular dystonia (VVD).
When exacerbations of vascular dystonia, the brushes may become reddish-blue, wet, cold. There are numbness, tingling, and sometimes pain in the fingers. Sensitivity to cold rises, arms and legs are very pale, sometimes the fingers swell, especially with the prolonged supercooled hands or feet. Exhaustion and excitement are causing an increase in the number of such cases. After such a condition, a general weakness and malaise may be felt for several days. One of the forms of vegetative-vascular paroxysms is fainting. With fainting suddenly darkens in the eyes, the face is pale, comes a weakness – a person loses consciousness and falls. Cramps are usually not observed. Fainting is faster in the lying position.
When diagnosing VVD complain of weakness, fatigue, irritability, disturbed normal sleep. Depending on the reaction of the cardiovascular system, there are 3 types of VVD: cardial, hypotonic, and hypertonic.
Cardiac type – complaints of frequent heartbeat, sometimes feeling of lack of air, may be marked changes in the heart rhythm (sinus tachycardia, severe respiratory arrhythmia).
Hypotonic type – fatigue, muscle weakness, headache (it is often provoked by hunger), chillyness of hands and feet, tendency to dizziness. The skin is usually pale, the hands are cold, palms are wet, there is a decrease in systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg.
Hypertension type – an increase in blood pressure, which in almost half of patients is not combined with a change in well-being; is characteristic and is first detected during a medical examination. On the fundus day, unlike hypertension, there are no changes. In some cases, complaints of headache, palpitation, general fatigue are possible. Tachycardia with slight physical activity, tendency to increase (hypertonic type) or decrease (hypotonic type) of arterial pressure, cold hands, feet. In addition, the “respiratory syndrome”, which is the feeling of shortness of breath, in the superficial breath. Hypertension type of vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by an increase in blood pressure to 140/90 – 170/95 mm Hg. and hypotonic type of vegetative-vascular dystonia – a decrease in blood pressure to 100/50 – 90/45 mm Hg. It is considered more correct examination of vegetative vascular dystonia not so much within the independent form of the disease, but as a syndrome. In such cases, the factors causing this disease must be disassembled in such a sequence: constitutional nature, endocrine changes in the body, primary damage to the visceral organs, primary diseases of the peripheral endocrine glands, allergy, organic brain damage, neurosis. The syndrome of vegetative vascular dystonia associated with constitutional nature at an early age is characterized by instability of vegetative parameters. Rapid changes in skin color, sweating, fluctuations in heart rate, blood pressure, gastrointestinal pain, nausea, unstable perception of physical and mental stress. Often, some of these disorders are diagnosed within one family.
Prevention (and treatment of VVD) of vascular dystonia should begin even in childhood and adolescence when organizing a rational mode of work and rest. This is necessary to avoid overvoltages and effects on the body with excessive excitement. At the heart of the treatment of VVD – NOT medication methods: normal lifestyle, tempering procedures, physical education and some sports (swimming, track and field athletics).
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