The spine is located between the skull and the pelvis and consists of 33-34 bones called vertebrae. Vertebrae form groups of four parts of the back:
Cervical – consists of 7 vertebrae.
Thoracic – consists of 12 vertebrae.
Lumbar – consists of 5-6 vertebrae.
Sacral department – consists of 5 fused vertebrae.
Coccyx – consists of 3 fused vertebrae.
The cervical spine is divided into two parts: the upper (C1 and C2), and the lower neck (from C3 to C7). C1 – called “Atlas” or “Atlas”, and C2 – “Axis”. Occipital (C0), also known as the occipital bone, is a flat bone that forms the back of the head.
Atlant – the first cervical vertebra – abbreviated C1. This vertebra supports the skull. Its appearance is different from other spinal vertebrae. Atlas Atlant is an annular bone that has two massive lateral joints that connect to the front and rear using the front and rear arches.
The second cervical vertebra is C2. Has a tooth of an axial vertebra. The connection of the tooth with the “Atlantom” provides the function of turning the neck – allows the head to rotate on the tooth.
Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12)
Thoracic vertebrae vary in size from T1 to T12. They are characterized by long spinous processes (which overlap each other) and relatively large vertebral openings (which form the spinal canal).
The chest (ribs) connect to the vertebrae of the thoracic region. The ribs are not attached to the vertebrae T11 and T12 – these are the so-called “floating ribs”. The range of motion of the thoracic spine is limited due to the large number of joints of the ribs, vertebrae and the length of the spinous processes.
Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)
Lumbar vertebrae vary in size from L1 to L5. These vertebrae account for most of the human weight, so they experience significant biomechanical loads. The spinous processes are located relatively horizontally and have a more square shape. The vertebral foramen is relatively large, but, here, compression of the nerve roots is more common than in the thoracic spine.
The sacral vertebrae are located between the pelvic bones. Five bones (abbreviated S1-S5) are connected in a triangular shape, the shape of the sacrum. The sacrum fits into the pelvic joint during the connection of the vertebra to the pelvis. The last lumbar vertebra (L5) provides movement of the sacral vertebrae. Accordingly, the sacral vertebrae fuse together, forming the tailbone.
The spine consists of many elements that are crucial for the general functions of the spine:
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